Child washing vegetables with his father.

8 Key Principles of the Montessori Method

The Montessori method is an integrated curriculum, curated by Dr. Montessori’s research and observations. It fosters a love of learning and empowers children to become independent and self-motivated.

Whether you’re a parent, teacher, caregiver, or anyone interested in nurturing young minds, understanding the eight core principles of Montessori education will enable you to understand how you can work with children.

It may seem easy to present Montessori materials and have children use them. However, true effectiveness of the Montessori method depends on understanding and implementing these core principles.

Without this foundation, the benefits and transformative potential of Montessori education can be lost.

Now, what are these eight principles?

Movement and Cognition

“The child sees the same action repeated at the same time every day in the same way. This attracts his attention. Children have a sense of the succession of activities in time. It is like a muscular memory, a memory of movement and of time. ”
Maria Montessori
The 1946 London Lectures

Maria Montessori believed that movement is crucial for learning. Children need to explore in order to learn effectively. This means that movement is required. Movement is fundamental to life and cognition.

Therefore, when designing a Montessori environment, make sure there is enough room for children to move and explore freely. This is an essential aspect of Montessori education.


Choice is a fundamental human motivator. Research has shown everyone needs a sense of control over their learning and well-being in order to enhance their lives.

When children are given choices, such as selecting materials from a shelf, they experience a sense of control over their learning. This sense of control can lead to improved learning and overall well-being which in turn fosters a love of exploration and a deeper engagement with the learning process.

Child choosing activity from Montessori shelf.


Interest is the fuel for learning. Just like adults, children learn best when they’re curious and engaged. When they are interested in something, they are naturally more driven and motivated to learn deeper. They will find it easy to retain the information too.

Montessori directresses nurture children’s interests by providing specially designed materials and opportunities for exploration. This allows children to follow their natural interests at their own pace, when selecting the materials to work with. This helps foster a sense of ownership in their learning and deeper understanding.

Avoiding Extrinsic Rewards

Montessori avoids external rewards like stickers or stars. The focus is on the joy of learning and mastering new skills that comes from within which is intrinsic motivation.

When children are rewarded for completing tasks, their focus shifts to the reward itself, not the deeper satisfaction of learning. This can reduce their internal drive to explore and discover on their own.

“She (the teacher) understands and believes that the children must be free to choose their own occupations just as they must never be interrupted in their spontaneous activities. No work may be imposed – no threats, no rewards, no punishments. The teacher must be quiet and passive, waiting patiently and almost withdrawing herself from the scene, so as to efface her own personality and thus allow plenty of room for the child’s spirit to expand. ”
Maria Montessori
The Absorbent Mind

Learning from and with Peers

Learning from and with peers is a great way for children to learn. In a Montessori classroom, where children aged three to six years are grouped together, they can learn from each other. Younger children watch and copy what older children do, and the older children can show leadership by guiding the younger ones. This way, children learn together and from each other, creating a more engaging and effective learning environment.

Learning in Context

To make learning more effective, it’s essential to connect it to real-life situations. For example, if you are teaching about insects, instead of just using pictures, take children on a walk to observe insects in their natural environment, such as a park or under a tree. This approach makes learning more meaningful and interesting, as children can relate their observations to the classroom setting. By creating a nature table, the learning experience becomes even more engaging and enriches the learning experience.

Adult Interactions

Effective adult-child interactions can lead to better outcomes for children. Teachers who know how to interact with children can foster optimal development. In Montessori education, we teach specific ways for teachers to interact with children, focusing on language use and interaction styles. By adopting these strategies, teachers can create a more positive learning environment that encourages better outcomes in children.

Orderly Montessori classroom with hands-on materials.

Order in Environment and Mind

Step into a Montessori classroom, and you’ll be greeted by a sense of calm order. The space is divided into clear zones, each with its own materials. Every item has a designated spot, and that’s precisely where you’ll find it, even after a busy day. This emphasis on order goes beyond mere tidiness.

Maria Montessori believed that an orderly environment fosters an orderly mind. When children learn to respect their surroundings and return materials to their places, they develop a sense of structure and organization within themselves. The physical order becomes a mirror for their mental processes, helping them categorize information and develop clear thinking. It’s a powerful way to support a child’s cognitive growth.


The Montessori Method goes beyond simply providing children with specialized materials. It’s a comprehensive approach that fosters a love of learning through movement, choice, and the joy of discovery itself. By understanding the eight core principles explored here, parents, caregivers, and educators can create environments that nurture a child’s natural curiosity, independence, and self-motivation.
Ready to take a deeper dive? Download our free ebook, “What is Montessori?” to learn more about the Montessori philosophy and its practical applications. Additionally, explore our program details to see how you can implement these principles in your classrooms or your home, empowering young minds to reach their full potential.


The Montessori Method rests on eight core principles. Children learn best by moving and exploring (Movement & Cognition). They thrive with choices in their learning (Choice) and when their natural curiosity is ignited (Interest). Montessori classrooms focus on the joy of learning itself, not external rewards (Intrinsic Motivation). Children learn from and with each other in mixed-age groups (Learning from Peers). Real-world connections solidify learning (Learning in Context). Effective communication from adults fosters a positive learning environment (Teacher and Child Ways). Finally, a calm and organized space promotes clear thinking (Order in Environment and Mind).

Children in the Montessori environment gain independence through choice of activities and materials. Hands-on learning with minimal intervention allows them to problem-solve and experience the satisfaction of completing tasks on their own. Montessori activities often focus on practical life skills, building self-reliance in everyday tasks.

Yes! Create a designated learning space with accessible materials. Offer choices for activities and follow your child’s interests. Minimize distractions and focus on the learning process, not just the end result. By incorporating these principles, you can nurture your child’s natural desire to learn and be independent.

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